Federal Sentencing for Drug Crime is about to get smarter; or at least
that is what some people think. In what could be a significant change
in the Federal Sentencing laws for drug crimes, Senator Richard Durbin
sponsored a bill – "The Smarter Sentencing Act of 2013"
or SSA - that was introduced to the Senate in August of 2013. There is
no word on if and when the bill will become law, (it has passed the Senate
Judiciary Committee and heads now to the Senate Floor) but :President
Obama – through Attorney General Holder - has made it clear that
he advocates of change to the sentencing laws and would likely sign the
bill. To some, like the NAACP and FAMM – Families against Mandatory
Minimums – this bill is a welcomed change. To others, like some
seasoned U.S. Attorneys across the country this is bad for communities
and will directly lead to a drug crime surge. Either way, the SSA is a
clear message that America's strategy in the War on Drugs is about
to change its tactics.
The SSA, if passed, will lead to three important developments. First, the
Fair Sentencing Act (FSA) of 2010 will become retroactive. The FSA, increased
the amounts of crack cocaine that trigger 5 and 10 year mandatory minimums.
The SSA would make the FSA retroactive by allowing federal crack cocaine
offenders who committed their offenses before August 3, 2010 to make a
motion to the Court requesting the application of the FSA to their case.
Secondly, the SSA would modify and expand the criteria for the "safety
valve" exception to mandatory minimums by allowing the "safety
valve" benefit to apply to those defendants who fall into Criminal
History Category I and II – rather than just Category I.
Thirdly, and perhaps the most critical and also the most controversial
aspect of the bill, reduce the 5, 10 and 20 year mandatory minimum sentences
to 2, 5, and 10 year terms respectively. This portion of the bill, which
essentially slashes all mandatory minimum sentences in half, clearly addresses
the passionate debate that has occurred in connection with mandatory minimum
sentences since their inception in the 1980s. According to organizations
like the NAACP and FAMM, the U.S. has seen an astronomical increase in
the number of federal inmates over the last 30 years due to mandatory
minimum sentences. On purely racial terms, the NAACP cites that more than
60% of the people in prison are now racial and ethnic minorities and 1
out of every 10 males in federal prison are African-American. In addition,
the reduction of mandatory minimums also attacks the reality that federal
judges are hamstrung due to a "one size fits all" approach to
sentencing. To add more positives to the SSA, it will potentially lead
to reducing mandatory minimum sentences include reducing prison overcrowding,
saving taxpayer money, and minimizing the risk of destroying family units
which in turn destroy communities.
Of course not everyone supports the SSA. In fact, proponents know that
given a conservative majority in the House, the passage of the SSA is
heading for an uphill battle. Some federal prosecutors are of the opinion
that while incarceration rates may decline, drug crime will rise because
drug dealers will not feel the pressure to cooperate. The argument is
that when faced with an option of a 20-year mandatory minimum compared
with cooperating against kingpins or cartels and receiving a real break
in sentencing, cooperation is often chosen. Without a ominous mandatory
minimum term hanging over a defendant's head, the compulsion to cooperate
- which leads to other arrests and prosecutions - diminishes.
In the meantime while the bill makes its way through the legislative process,
another development is on the horizon. The U.S. Sentencing Commission
has recommended the 2-point decrease to all Base Offense Levels (BOL)
in the Drug Quantity Table under §2D1.1 that correspond to drug type
and weight. As an example, if a defendant is charged with possession of
800 grams of heroin under the present guidelines, his BOL is 30. If this
new proposal is adopted, that BOL will drop to 28. This is not insignificant.
The difference in a defendant's ultimate sentence could drop over
a year in some cases. Assuming no Congressional action to the contrary,
this change could become part of the Sentencing Guidelines by November.
Importantly, Attorney General Holder has gone on record supporting this
decrease, and saying that prosecutors should not object even now, to a
two-point reduction in the BOL.
Whether you believe that these new proposed changes to federal sentencing
laws are "smart" tactics or akin to a retreat or a surrender,
the laws are changing and the strategy in our War on Drugs is about to
change with it.